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Cognitive therapy uses the six domains of cognitive functioning to assess individual needs and determine a plan to maintain or increase abilities.

Therapy might look like:​​

  • ​Deficit-based cognitive testing

  • Motivational interviews to determine the impact on functional day-to-day tasks

  • Goal setting as a care team 

  • Developing and practicing strategies to ease deficit impact such as home exercises, situational practice, and activity modifications

Six Domains of Cognitive Functioning

Executive Functioning

  • Trouble initiating, planning, organizing, and carrying out a task

  • Difficulty with decision making

  • Changes in problem solving and reasoning skills


  • Difficulty with orientation of time, place, or people

  • Changes with short-term or long-term memory

  • Difficulty with day-to-day tasks

Social Cognition

  • Trouble with topic maintenance and taking other perspectives

  • Poor insight to deficits

  • Difficulty responding to non-verbal cues (body language, facial expression, etc.)


  • Distracted by the environment

  • Difficulty completing one task at a time


  • Trouble with word finding and processing verbal information 

Visuospatial Skills

  • Struggling with visual neglect, like ignoring visual input on one side of the body

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